Contents

Preface

1 Introduction
1.1 Research Questions and Methodological Concepts
1.2 Selection of the Corpus

PART I THE SHOFAR IN TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS TEXTS

2 The Shofar in the Bible

3 The Shofar in the Prayer Books for the High Holy Days
3.1 Shofar and Halakhah
3.2 Shofar Prayers
3.3 Shofar Blasts

PART II DIALOGUES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS TEXTS AND MODERN MUSIC, LITERATURE AND ART: A CLASSIFICATION

PART III THE SHOFAR IN MODERN MUSIC, LITERATURE AND ART

4.1 Yitskhok Leybush Perets, short story Bontshe Shvayg (1894)
4.2 Moris Rozenfeld, poem Sephirah (1898)
4.3 Ephraim Moses Lilien, drawing The Creation of Man (1902)
4.4 Yitskhok Leybush Perets, short story The Shofar (1902)
4.5 Edward Elgar, oratorio The Apostles (1903)
4.6 Ḥayyim Naḥman Bialik, poem And it shall be when the days grow long… (1908)
4.7 Ernest Bloch, cantata Psalm 114 (1912)
4.8 Sholem Aleykhem, short story Mr. Green Has a Job (1915)
4.9 Ernest Bloch, orchestral composition Schelomo (1916)
4.10 S. Anski, play Between Two Worlds (The Dybbuk) (1919)
4.11 Yoysef Tshaykov, drawing Dawn (1919)
4.12 Shaul Tshernikhovski, poem Did I come too soon (1919)
4.13 H. Leyvik, poem The Wolf: A Chronicle (1920)
4.14 Israel Zangwill, poem “Our Own”: A Cry across the Atlantic (1920)
4.15 Aaron Copland, piano trio Vitebsk (1929)
4.16 Arnold Schoenberg, opera Moses und Aron (1932)
4.17 Else Lasker-Schüler, play Arthur Aronymus and His Ancestors (1932)
4.18 Felix Nussbaum, painting Entombment (Organ-Grinders) (1933)
4.19 Bruno Schulz, novel chapter The Night of the Great Season (1934)
4.20 Uriel Birnbaum, drawing A Great Shofar Sounds (1935)
4.21 Kurt Weill, oratorio The Eternal Road (1936)
4.22 Kenneth Fearing, poem Afternoon of a Pawnbroker (1943)
4.23 Thomas Mann, novella The Tables of the Law (1943)
4.24 Yehuda Haim Perahia, poem A Little Light (1944)
4.25 Avrom Sutskever, poem Resurrection (1945)
4.26 Nelly Sachs, poem Someone Blew the Shofar (1947)
4.27 Arnold Schoenberg, cantata A Survivor from Warsaw (1947)
4.28 Primo Levi, memoirs If This Is a Man (1947)
4.29 Der Nister, novel The Family Mashber (1939-1948)
4.30 Paul Goodman, parable The Messiah-Blower (1948)
4.31 Paul Goodman, novel chapter A Memorial Synagogue (1949)
4.32 Amir Gilboa, poem Raḥav (1950)
4.33 Ben Shahn, painting Third Allegory (1955)
4.34 Marc Chagall, etching The Deliverance of Jerusalem (1956)
4.35 Miklós Rózsa, film music Ben-Hur (1959)
4.36 Herman Wald, monument Memorial to the Six Million (1959)
4.37 Yiẓḥak Oren, short story The Monument of the Resurrection (1962)
4.38 Herman Berlinski, cantata Shofar Service (1964)
4.39 Abel Herzberg, autobiographical story The History of My Shofar (1965)
4.40 Naomi Shemer, song Jerusalem of Gold (1967)
4.41 Yehuda Amichai, poem Jerusalem is a port city on the shore of eternity (1968)
4.42 Paul Celan, poem The Shofar Place (1969)
4.43 Alexander Goehr, music theater piece Sonata about Jerusalem (1970)
4.44 Yehezkel Braun, cantata Festive Horns (1977)
4.45 Yehuda Amichai, poem The Real Hero (1983)
4.46 Geoffrey Hartman, poem Elegy at the Bodensee (1984)
4.47 Alvin Curran, electro-acoustic composition Crystal Psalms (1988)
4.48 Ofer Ben-Amots, cantata Psalm 81 (1989)
4.49 Babette Koblenz, instrumental composition Shofar (1989)
4.50 Alvin Curran, electro-acoustic composition Shofar der Zeit (1990)
4.51 Yechiel Granatstein, biographical chapter Rosh haShanah in Skarżysko (1991)
4.52 Richard Chess, poem “With a Blast of the Ram’s Horn” (1994)
4.53 Eliyahu Sidi, painting From Tractate Rosh Ha-Shanah (1994)
4.54 Luciano Berio, cantata Shofar (1995)
4.55 Judith Shatin, electro-acoustic composition Elijah’s Chariot (1996)
4.56 Bob Gluck, electronic composition Jonah under the Sea (1997)
4.57 Shulamit Ran, opera Between Two Worlds (1998)
4.58 Giulio Castagnoli, bassoon solo Shofar (1998)
4.59 Henry Brant, composition Prophets (2000)
4.60 Bob Gluck, electro-acoustic composition Shofaralong (2001)
4.61 Jeff Hamburg, orchestral composition Tekiah (2001)
4.62 Robert Normandeau, electronic composition Chorus: To the Victims of 9/11, 2001 (2002)
4.63 Tsippi Fleischer, orchestral composition Symphony No. 5 “Israeli-Jewish Collage” (2003)
4.64 Osvaldo Golijov, instrumental composition Tekyah (2004)
4.65 Avraham Loewenthal, painting 100 Sounds of the Shofar (2005)
4.66 Stefan Heucke, opera The Women’s Orchestra of Auschwitz (2006)
4.67 Andy Haas, electro-acoustic album Humanitarian War (2006)
4.68 Jordi Savall, instrumental composition Fanfare of Jericho, 1200 B.C. (2008)
4.69 Sarah Lindsay, poem Zucchini Shofar (2008)
4.70 Manuel Herz, synagogue Meor Hagola – Beth Knesset Magenza (2010)

5 Conclusions

Samenvatting in het Nederlands

Glossary of Hebrew and Yiddish Terms

Bibliography